As I mentioned in my introduction, I am working on my own project in addition to the research we are doing as a group. During our time in Monteverde, I’ll be setting out traps to see if parasitoid wasps in Costa Rica are attracted to a chemical called cantharidin. Cantharidin is a toxic chemical produced by blister beetles and false blister beetles as a defense (Hashimoto & Hayashi). Previous similar experiments captured a few of these wasps, but not nearly enough to definitively establish that some are attracted to cantharidin. At the suggestion of Paul Hanson, a professor studying hymenopterans (ants, bees, and wasps), I started planning an experiment to discover if any could be found.
Earlier in the summer, I set several traps in prairie areas of the KU Field Station, but a cloud forest in Costa Rica is considerably different from the grasslands the traps were originally designed for. A few elements had to be changed from the original trap to be better suited for the new environment. The initial traps were inverted funnel traps made of 2 liter soda bottles with cantharidin-impregnated filter paper as bait. An inverted funnel trap works on the idea that many insects will be able to climb into a hole, but will fly straight up when trying to escape. Having a small hole allows insects to enter, but prevents them from leaving. The bottle was made into a trap by cutting off the top where it starts to curve, then putting it upside down. In both locations, I put alcohol in the bottom of the trap to kill whatever insects landed in the bottom and then preserve them until they could be collected. Traps were attached to a wooden stake with waterproof duct tape to ensure they would stay upright.
The big difference between the traps was how I dealt with the issue of keeping the bait dry. I was told that filter paper holding the bait could not get wet. In Kansas, I focused on minimizing the problems caused by water getting the traps. To keep the bait dry, I suspended it from a wooden dowel put through holes in the side of the trap. With the bait in a safe place, I only had to prevent the trap from flooding. To do this, I made a few holes slightly above where the alcohol was and covered it with mesh to allow any excess liquid, likely rainwater, to drain out. In Costa Rica, I had the opportunity to prevent rain from entering the trap at all. To accomplish this, I made several rain covers using garbage bags, duct tape, and twine. This allowed me to suspend the bait with a strip from a ziplock bag and some tape. The advantage of this method is that I can put the bait directly under the hole in the trap, which makes it more attractive to insects. These traps can be seen in Figure 1.
One thing to note is that with the exception of the bait, all the materials used in the traps can be purchased at a grocery store for a few dollars. Science experiments don’t have to cost a fortune to carry out. A few household products and a little bit of preparation can answer plenty of questions.
Hashimoto, K. and Hayashi, F. (2014) Cantharidin world in nature: a concealed arthropod assemblage with interactions via the terpenoid cantharidin. Entomological Science 17: 388-395.
Image: Insect trap set-up used at all three sites in Costa Rica (Photo credit: Eric Becker)
Currently, we are staying at the field station within the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve. The reserve is covered in hiking trails that snake across the mountains in every direction. The southernmost path will lead you to the continental divide. This geographical feature spreads from the northern Alaskan shore to the southern shore of Argentina, and is comprised of various mountain chains. We are most familiar with the Rocky Mountains which make up the American portion.
The name continental divide is derived from the transactional nature of the mountains. The continuous chains of mountains separate the Americas into two watersheds which empty either into the Pacific or Atlantic Oceans. The patterns of weather throughout the Americans can be attributed to the moisture rolling off each side of the divide.
Tuesday morning the group walked the trail to the continental divide. The hike was about 2 kilometers (that's 1.24 miles for those back home), and took approximately thirty minutes. For the majority of the hike, we traveled through dense cloud forest, but once we approached the top of the mountain the canopy gave way to wind sculpted shrubs and stout trees. Without the protection of the larger trees, we felt the full power of the trade winds. The bellowing winds sprayed our faces with rain at 50-65 kilometers an hour (about 30-40 miles an hour). The winds pulled the clouds over the mountain tops, and spilled them into the valleys.
Apparently, we were quite lucky to experience such forceful winds. Trade winds normally occur in December when the rainy season gives way to the dry season. The strange weather could be attributed to the shifting weather patterns Monteverde is currently experiencing.
Images: top, Panorama of the Continental Divide; middle, Alex at the Divide; bottom, a clowning Jake holding Tim, who is playing the part of Rose in Titatic.
My name is Emma Overstreet and I'm in my fourth year at KU. I'm currently majoring in Genetics, but I have broad interests in organismal biology and particularly entomology. I love travelling and hiking and am always looking for ways to spend time in nature. While in Costa Rica, I hope to broaden my knowledge of ecology and appreciate the incredible biodiversity the tropical climate has to offer, while gaining useful insight into the process of field work and research.
Despite the fact that my group’s research focused on insect communities in plants, I witnessed a variety of mammals throughout my time abroad. These animals ranged in familiarity from incredibly common to previously unseen. However, many of them shared the unique nature of being wild, making their behaviors unique to the unexposed eye.
The first thing I noticed of familiar life in Costa Rica is that the country is filled with presumably ownerless dogs. These canines frequently follow any stranger for kilometers in hope of receiving affection and food. While it’s often medically advisable to avoid petting these unkempt mutts to avoid the parasitic worms they may potentially harbor, it’s admittedly difficult to resist their adorable begging for attention. Another familiar animal I encountered was a cat ambitiously hunting a sizable lizard. Raccoons also participate in their typically mischievous practices of scavenging through beach-goers affects.
As for unfamiliar encounters, the bulk of my experiences occurred at a tourist attraction park. At this spot, our group enjoyed observing all three of the monkey species that live within the park — howler monkeys, white-throated capuchins, and squirrel monkeys. Upon seeing a pack of capuchins jumping through the trees, a single mother began to intimidate me away from her baby.
Later, at the Monteverdi Cloud Forest Reserve, I was awoken by the not-so-soothing sounds of the rainforest, those being the noisy antics of other howler monkeys and capuchins. Howlers are named for their characteristic vocalizations which are territorial displays. Unfortunately, they often choose to begin this behavior at five in the morning, persisting for over an hour. On a different day but at the same time, a capuchin decided to climb the balcony and roof of the reserve, banging on the door for some unknown reason.
While these animals often act unpredictably and strangely, it was exciting to observe so many creatures that common to Costa Rica.
Photos by Vickie Grotbeck.
Imagine walking down the street. You notice several people giving you sideways glances or double-taking as you go by. You see older people glaring, and others seem to think you look like a side show attraction. You have tattoos and piercings that are quite visible and people don't seem to know how to act when they see you.
Now imagine this: you are walking down the street. Everyone is in a hurry to get where they need to be or are talking joyously with their group of friends. You can walk for a great distance and no one really gives you a second thought. The group that you are in stands out as a bunch of gringos, but no one is overtly rude by staring.
The first scenario is a typical day for me in the United States. The second is my experience in San Jose, Costa Rica. While back home people seem to judge me for my body modifications, here they don't seem to really care, which is surprising to me because I was expecting it to be worse here, in a very Catholic country.
Several people have tattoos in Costa Rica, but facial piercings are a tad more scarce. Either way, the crowds of people you pass in the street seem more interested in going somewhere than to be bothered by someone who looks different. It is a pleasant change from how Americans act.
Costa Rica has approximately 110 out of 1,100 species of bats. Out of all the species of mammals in Costa Rica, bats make up approximately 50% of the mammals found in the country.
There are several different types of bats, classified by their diets. Found only in Central and South American countries, there is Desmodus rotundus, or the common vampire bat, which is a sanguivore, meaning they consume blood. There are also nectarvores, which eat the nectar of nocturnal flowers and are major pollinators. Fruitivores are fruit eating bats, and finally, carnivore bats, which eat frogs, insects, fish, and even other bats. Costa Rica is home to all of these kind of bats.
In 2006 renowned bat biologist Richard LaVal opened the Bat Jungle, a world-class bat exhibit. The attraction includes a microphone that can pick up on ultrasonic sound waves, allowing their guests to hear when the bats echolocate, a bat cave with 100 bats. They have feedings scheduled throughout the day and have a small bat that cannot fly that guests can see up close and personal.
Scattered around the reception area are several posters with lots of bat information, ranging from common misconceptions to skeletal structures of popular bat species.
After one long week of no bat sightings, we finally to got to see some bats. Our tour guide impressed me greatly. He was very well informed on current bat information. During the tour he told the group about the white fungus issue happening in North America and about the nearest information on how scientists are finally able to treat bats with it. This information was released about two weeks ago, so it was very current and a good thing to share when touring with a group of biologists. Our guide took us into the bat cave, which was amazing, and held a flashlight on the bats for us to get pictures of them. He even feed them so our group could see them dive in for some watermelon chunks.
After we left the bat cave he brought out Oscar, the little bat who couldn't fly, and allowed our group to pet him to feel his tiny body shake from his rapid heartbeat. As an aspiring bat biologist, this tour was the highlight of the trip so far.
Photos by Vickie Grotbeck and Kayla Yi
So many people go into classes and don’t retain any of the information because they don’t care about it. They do not think that they need to know it. I felt that way when we learned about plants in Principles of Organismal Biology, but being in the cloud forests of Costa Rica have shown me so many things that we learned about, such as liverworts and ferns.
This experience has demonstrated that entomologists need to know a good deal of botany. We had a seminar by mammalogist/ecologist Erin Kuprewicz about her work with mammals and insects and their interactions with plants, titled "Seed Hoarding, Seedling Survival and Forest Dynamics." She needed to know a great deal about the plant life cycle for her study. This study abroad has given me a new respect for other disciplines that many people had previously dubbed unnecessary for their own field.
Carlos Garcia-Robledo also gave a seminar titled "Climate Change, Invasive Plants, and the Colonization of Novel Plants by Insect Herbivores." He brought up a phone application called LeafSnap (there is also a LeafSnap UK). This app is so cool. What you do is take a picture of a leaf and using 16 points (like a fingerprint), it will identify the species of plant! It will also connect your location to the plant so that they can see where these plants are! They have used it to track migration of plants across North America.
One side note: Tomorrow we are going to the beach! Many of us have never been to the Pacific Ocean before and one of us has never been to any ocean before. I am looking forward to the beach and his reaction! We also got to watch Jurassic World (for only $4). Apparently, the islands are actually (fictionally) off the coast of Costa Rica. I nearly cried at the beginning because it was so beautiful and amazing (the same reason I cried through most of How to Train Your Dragon 2) and because I was actually there!!! This place is incredible and full of nature. There is a creek running through the University of Costa Rica campus and a family of sloths living there! (Dr. Chaboo tried to trade them for KU squirrels!).
When most people think of herding, an image of a cowboy walking a herd of cattle across an open plain often comes to mind. The insect world, however, has a far more intriguing example of herding.
Despite having been in Costa Rica for only a few days, several groups of herding ants have been discovered in the various sites that the group visited. Looking from an outsider’s perspective, there seemed to be nothing more than a small size group of animals nestled together under the branch of a tree. Upon closer inspection however, one can truly appreciate the naturalistic relationship between the herding ants and their “cattle.” While out on the University of Costa Rica campus, the first group of herding ants was uncovered (see photo at left, by Kyle Clark). The animals being herded were the larval( or nymph) form of Florida, burrowers that dig into the branches to suck the nectar out of the tree. Because the branch contains high amounts of water, the bugs that are absorbing nutrients from the branch release a large volume of sugar filled urine. As these larvae suck out and secrete the excess sap for the ants to consume, the ants patrol the branch, protecting their herd from danger. The larvae continue to eat, the low nutrition-to-liquid ratio quickly leads to an excess of sugary liquid that develop around the animal’s rear. The patrolling ants can then “milk” their cattle, consuming the nectar off the larvae’s body.
The following day, the exact same interaction between more herding ants and aphids were observed on the stem of another small plant (see photo by John Kaiser, below). This "ant herding" interaction between the two species is a text book example of mutualism because both the organisms benefit greatly from the others exisistence and production. Relationships like these are truly fascinating to us because it shows how two organisms can co-evolve to survive and be successful! - Kyle Clark and John Kaiser
Studying abroad in costa rica was probably the best decision I have made during my two years at the University of Kansas. The amount of information that I have consumed has been truly remarkable and I can already say that this course has taught me more applicable knowledge than any course I have participated in before.
In order to prepare for field research and the world of arthropods, we attended some lectures at the University of Costa Rica. The afternoon consisted of five lectures that all related to Costa Rican arthropods in some way, and ultimately would help us understand different aspects of arthropod research. Dr. Chaboo, from the University of Kansas, started out the lecture series by discussing some basic information on beetles and how certain ecosystems impact arthropod biodiversity. Her lecture was what set the foundation for my understanding of arthropod research and its importance on the modern world. The next lecturer was Paul Hanson, who was originally from Minnesota but decided to move to Costa Rica after he got offered a teaching job at the University of Costa Rica. Paul introduced us to the topic of galls, which are bubble-like abnormalities formed by different bug larvae that live inside plant tissue. I found this lecture to be extraordinarily interesting because I have witnessed galls on plants for years, but never thought it was being caused by a separate organism.
The next lecture introduced me to an aspect of learning that I have never had to deal with. Angel solis from the Instituto National de Biodiversity gave a lecture in Spanish on various beetles. This lecture was a bit of a challenge for me considering I do not know much Spanish. I tried my best to follow along and picked up on some basic words that allowed me to vaguely understand the topics Angel spoke about. Angel’s lecture did teach me about a foreign perspective that I had never considered. At KU we have thousands of foreign students that do not know English very well, and Angel’s Spanish lecture put me in the foreign students' shoes for an hour. it is incredibly difficult to comprehend a lecture that is not in your primary language, and after my experience I have a lot more respect for non-English speaking KU students!
The fourth lecture was taught by American Erin Kuprewicz from the National Museum of Natural History and the Smithsonian Institute. Erin educated us on seedling survival studies and how placement of a seed can impact its survival. I found this lecture to be interesting because it opened my eyes to the different organisms that can affect a plant's reproduction. Erin indicated that both mammals and arthropods can consume seedlings, but placement of the seed can determine which organisms are able to consume it.
Finally we had a lecture from Carlos Garcia Robledo from the Instituto de Ecologia on how plants are affected by climate change, invasive species, and insect herbivores. Carlos had the most in-depth lecture out of the the five lectures. My favorite part of the lecture was when Carlos tied in modern technology such as apps and search engines with ecology. For instance, he spoke of a plant identification app for the iphone called leafsnap that allowed users to photograph a leaf to determine the species. I found the concept of leafsnap to be incredibly useful for beginner ecologists such as myself. Because I do not know many plant species this app would help me identify plants quickly in the field without having to use an identification book. Combining technology and biology is becoming more common and I think that concepts like leafsnap will be widely used in 5-10 years.
Listening to lectures at the University of Costa Rica has introduced me to new aspects of biology that I would not get a chance to experience at KU. All the ecologists that spoke during the lecture series provided direct data from their personal research, and showed us students what concluding research data should look like. Ultimately I really enjoyed listening to all the researchers speak because it got me much more interested in entomology research and all the possibilities of different research projects that are currently being conducted and what still needs to be researched!
A common expectation in education involves accepting the information delivered in lectures and conveyed in textbooks. Students must accept that complicated chemical reactions proceed as described in the literature or that their ecology professor accurately describes how a rainforest functions. After all, authors and professors providing these educational materials devote their lives to investigating these subjects; why would anyone doubt their credulity? However, this often means that students are deprived of direct contact, only learning things indirectly via photographs or perhaps video footage as visual aids. I was exhilarated to witness one such phenomenon while touring the University of Costa Rica where the campus is filled with the extensively researched and tropically endemic leaf-cutting ants. Prior to this field expedition, I had only read of these extraordinarily complicated specimens and learned of them in KU biology courses like Principles of Organismal Biology (BIOL 152) and Evolutionary Biology (BIOL 412).
Leaf-cutter ants are tropical creatures that chew off the foliage of plants and transport the leaves back to their nest where they use the leaves to cultivate a fungus garden. In the picture above, you can see a group of leaf-cutter ants transporting nutritional leaves into their nest to cultivate their fungus garden. These colonies can consist of up to four million individuals. This fungus garden is what the ant colony uses to feed their maturing larvae.
This animal-fungus relationship is a typical example of a phenomenon called mutualism in which two species directly interact with each other in ways that substantially benefits both parties. However, this system is even more interestingly intricate. A separate, microscopic fungus, which I will refer to as a mold for the sake of distinction, parasitizes the fungus garden that the ants depend on for food. In response to this pest, these gardener ants have developed a pesticide to treat their garden to kill the mold. Within the crevices of the ant’s exoskeleton, colonies of antibiotic-producing bacteria reside and synthesize chemicals that prevent the garden from being destroyed by the parasitic mold. This interaction is suspected to have coevolved along with ants during their evolutionary history (Currie et al. 2006).
When this quadripartite system of symbiotic relationships was discovered, it excited biologists due to its embodiment of several different biological phenomena—mutualism, parasitism, and coevolution. Indeed, this system remains a developing corner of research and proves to be even more complicated than originally thought. It is exciting to observe a famous textbook model during my travel in Costa Rica.
Reference: Cameron R. Currie, Michael Poulsen, John Mendenhall, Jacobus J. Boomsma, and Johan Billen. “Coevolved Crypts and Exocrine Glands Support Mutualistic Bacteria in Fungus-Growing Ants.” Science 6 January 2006: 311 (5757), 81-83. [DOI:10.1126/science.1119744]