Collections Policies provide details on how to best make use of our collections by detailing how to obtain and use our data, how to request loans of physical specimens, and how to proceed with a request for frozen tissue samples.

Specimen Data Policy

The catalog data for the specimens in the collection are available in an electronic database. Although some collection data are not available online, you can access an inventory of the holdings via HerpNet2/VertNet. Electronic or hardcopy reports of collection data are available to qualified professional and student researchers. Reports can be generated based on taxonomic or geographic categories. Requests for data on specimens in the collection can be made by e-mailing our collections staff.

Acquiring a Loan

Specimens in the collection are available for loan upon approval by the Curator-in-Charge, Dr. Rafe Brown. Specimens may be loaned to qualified, recognized professionals or their students, at the discretion of the Curator-in-Charge, for a period of 6 months. Graduate and undergraduate students requesting specimens on loan must submit a letter of request co-signed by their advisor. Loans are institutional; thus, the borrower's institution assumes full and complete responsibility for the material on loan, and agrees to all conditions specimens for the handling and storage of borrowed specimens. In the case of students, loans are made to their adviser through his/her institution. The criteria considered in granting a loan request include, but are not limited to, the number of specimens in the request,  specimens that are requested, the condition of the specimens, the borrower's plans for to do with the specimens, the project design, the previous loan record of the borrower, the location of the borrower, and priority use of the material by another researcher. In some cases, it may be preferable for a researcher to visit Herpetology instead of borrowing specimens.

Destructive Sampling Policy

Techniques for extracting usable DNA from formalin-preserved specimens have advanced to the point that samples from destructive sampling of specimens are increasingly included in systematic studies. KU Herpetology operates under the general philosophy such that destructive sampling should occur only when non-destructive options have been exhausted or do not exist. Requests for such grants from the KU collection will be subject to the criteria listed for standard tissue requests, but will also take into account the following factors. Because destructive sampling requires irreparable damage to the specimen, only small requests will be considered. Destructive sampling should not be considered an alternative to collecting fresh material. Specimens to be destructively sampled should be unobtainable by conventional methods, and usually, sampling will done by Division personnel.

Tissue "Loan" (Gift) Policy

Tissue policy rationale

KU collections are part of a global network of institutions that house and curate biodiversity data and biological resources. In this capacity, we must conserve this material for the future. Destructively sampled tissues for DNA extraction in molecular studies are the limiting resource in almost all modern phylogenetic studies. Most tissues at KU have been obtained in the field by KU researchers. Because these tissues are not an unlimited resource, permission for destructive sampling will only be considered if it involves well-qualified investigators conducting well-conceived and properly justified studies.

Basic principles of our tissue policy

1. KU Herpetology will grant tissue loans/gifts only for well-founded and well-justified scientific applications.

2. KU Herpetology expects users of our genetic resources to be contributors to collections of genetic resources. KU preferentially provides access to researchers who contribute to collections worldwide.

3. Because genetic samples are used in a different manner than traditional museum specimens, a different set of criteria applies to loan requests. In general, we support high-quality research proposals from investigators seeking samples to supplement their own collecting efforts. Samples are loaned to specific investigators only for specific projects. Samples, including their derivatives, cannot be transferred to other researchers without permission from KU Herpetology. If project plans change significantly, approval for modified uses of KU tissues must be obtained from our staff.

Standard tissue "loans"

1. Tissues are provided as a gift from the KU Herpetology Tissue Collection. They are subsamples and, as such, no tissue remnants or derivatives are to be returned. In rare cases (i.e., extremely rare taxa or small tissue remnants), KU reserves the rights to request the return of extracted genomic DNA after researchers have completed their project.

2. Tissues are sent in 95% ethanol or RNALater unless otherwise noted on the invoice or unless otherwise requested by the researcher.

3. One copy of the loan invoice is included with the tissues as a packing slip. An additional copy of the invoice will be sent via email. Please print, sign, and return a copy of this invoice to acknowledge safe receipt of tissues.

4. Tissues are for research use only and for the express purpose outlined in the tissue request. No tissues or product may be exchanged, loaned or re-gifted to a third party or cataloged into any collection without the express permission of KU Herpetology. No tissue or product may be used for commercial purposes or for financial gain of any kind.

5. All published sequences generated from tissues must to be registered with GenBank and KU catalog numbers from corresponding voucher specimens must be submitted to GenBank as the official voucher corresponding to gene sequences.

6. Genbank accession numbers must also be reported directly to KU Herpetology for inclusion in the KU Herpetology database. The "loan" is considered "closed" or "returned" when KU receives this information from the researcher. Unpublished sequences deposited with Genbank should be registered and reported in the same way. Please note the failure to report this information to KU Herpetology may adversely affect the ability the researcher, his/her collaborators, and advisor(s) to secure future loans from KU.

7. If, after 5 years, the researcher has not submitted gene sequences to GenBank and returned GenBank accession numbers to KU Herpetology, KU reserves the right to obtain sequences from the researcher and submit the data to GenBank on his/her behalf.

8. A copy of any publication citing KU tissue sequences must be submitted to the KU Herpetology Library, care of the curators. A digital version of the publication in PDF format would fulfill this obligation.

Tissue Requests

Tissue request proposals usually involve two steps:
 First, researchers should examine the specimen holdings on the KU database at HerpNet2/VertNet. Because the "prep status" field on these search engines is not always up to date, inquiries as to whether corresponding tissue samples are available can be directed to collections staff. Second, once it has been established that KU holds tissues of interest, specific samples are requested in writing on institutional letterhead from the Curator-in-Charge. Graduate students are required to submit a letter co-signed by their advisor, who will assume responsibility for use of the samples. If the tissue request is approved, subsequent communication will be handled via email with curatorial staff. A tissue request must provide the following information:

1. A brief outline of the goals, methods, and time frame of the project.

2. Justification for the use of the samples. What is the scientific merit of the proposed study?

3. A list of the KU specimens by taxon and catalog number.

4. The total number of tissues to be used in the project, in addition to KU’s contribution. Please specify the non-KU number of tissues per taxon that will be included in the study.

5. A statement of reciprocal benefit (can include contributions to other, non-KU collections).

6. Indicate how you prefer your shipment to be sent and provide the full mailing address and telephone number.

7. A statement indicating agreement to the KU Loan/Gift policy (below) and an estimated time frame for submission of sequence data to GenBank.

A committee that consists of KU Herpetology curators and curatorial staff will evaluate the tissue request. If the requested tissues have been donated to the collection by a non-KU researcher who wishes to be involved in the granting decision, we will obtain his/her opinion. Questions about the KU’s tissue-use policy should be directed to the curators. Key considerations in decisions regarding tissue grants are as follow:

A. Scientific merit: Samples will be provided only to investigators who demonstrate clearly and convincingly the scientific merit of the proposed work. Among the factors that will be considered are (1) the degree to which the questions being investigated are scientifically compelling; (2) completeness of taxon sampling already obtained by requester; (3) character sampling; and (4) the investigator’s track record of research and timely publication.

B. Collecting effort: Priority will be given to researchers seeking key samples to augment the results of their own collecting efforts. In the case of students, the collecting activities of the advisor or institution will be considered. Unvouchered samples have little scientific utility, and indeed conclusions based on such samples often are best considered speculation, rather than scientific results. Assessment of the collecting activities of investigators and institutions regarding a particular study thus will take into account the limited scientific utility of unvouchered samples. 

C. Number of samples: Requests for a limited number of samples to be included in a larger project are more likely to be approved than requests for large portions of the project’s sampling. If KU samples will constitute a large proportion of the sampling, then collaborative arrangements or some sort of in-kind support for Division activities should be proposed. KU Herpetology will not provide the majority of sampling needed to complete a phylogenetic study. 

D. Conflict with existing projects: Sample requests that conflict with KU projects already planned or underway are unlikely to be approved. In such cases, collaborations may be explored, or projects (either KU or the proposed projects) can be altered to minimize conflict, character overlap, or taxonomic overlap.

E. Rarity of samples: Requests for rare or difficult-to-acquire samples may require extra justification. Such samples should be integral to the project design and not just included because they are novel.

F. Former relationship with KU Herpetology and record reciprocity in the network of institutional collections of biological resources: The requester’s past relationship with KU Herpetology will be considered when loan requests are reviewed by our curatorial staff. If an individual lacking a past relationship with KU requests tissue samples, an explicit statement of the reciprocal benefits to KU and/or the global network of biodiversity collections will strengthen their request.

G. USDA and USF&WS regulations will govern tissue distribution: KU Herpetology operates in strict accordance with all relevant laws, rules, and regulations. No exceptions to these legal restrictions will be allowed.